Tzars of the world: People who matter the most in the world politics

Politics refers to a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, or an area. It involves making decisions that apply to members of a group. It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state. We have leaders who lead a country to greatness but very few of them have gone to become rulers and have obtained a cult status not only in their sphere of influence but also around the world at large

Here we would discuss a few world leaders who have created a cult status for themselves in the governance of their states in totality.

Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Putin was born on October the 7th 1952 in Leningrad, Russia. He came from a normal family and he lived most of his life as an average person and he has maintained it till now. After the long & dreaded 2nd world war, Putin’s family moved into a room in a typical communal apartment located in St Petersburg. In 1970 Putin became a student of the Law department at Leningrad state university and earned his degree in 1975. He studied at the KGB School no 1 in Moscow. As said in his own words, “Even before I finished high school, I wanted to work in intelligence. Granted, soon after, I decided I wanted to be a sailor, but then I wanted to do intelligence again. In the very beginning, I wanted to be a pilot”. Putin was a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years and rose to the rank of Lt. Colonel before resigning in 1991 to enter politics in St. Petersburg. He moved to Moscow in 1996 & joined President Yeltsin’s cabinet and rose quickly through the ranks and becoming an active president on 31st December. Putin has been in power of the Russian government since then. Putin won the 2018 presidential elections with more than 76% vote. His fourth term began on 7th May 2018. On 14th June 2018, Putin opened the 21st FIFA World Cup which took place in Russia for the first time. Putin particularly in his early presidency always aimed at creating a vertical power structure. According to Stephen White, under the presidency of Putin Russia made it clear that it had no intention of establishing a “second edition” of the American or British political system, but rather a system that was closer to Russia’s own traditions and circumstances. During his first term in office, Putin opposed some of the Yeltsin-era oligarchs, as well as his political opponents, resulting in the exile or imprisonment of such people as Boris Berezovsky, Vladimir Gusinsky, and Mikhail Khodorkovsky; other oligarchs such as Roman Abramovich and Arkady Rotenberg are friends and allies with Putin. Putin succeeded in codifying land law and tax law and promulgated new codes on labor, administrative, criminal, commercial and civil procedural law. In 2007, Russia’s GDP exceeded that of Russian SFSR in 1990, having recovered from the 1998 financial crisis and the preceding recession in the 1990s. Russia joined the World Trade Organization on 22 August 2012. Energy, trade, and finance agreements with China worth $25 billion were signed in October 2014 in an effort to compensate for international sanctions. The following year, a $400 billion 30-year natural gas supply agreement was also signed with China. The resumption of long-distance flights of Russia’s strategic bombers was followed by the announcement by Russian Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov during his meeting with Putin on 5 December 2007, that 11 ships, including the aircraft carrier Kuznetsov, would take part in the first major navy sortie into the Mediterranean since Soviet times. Under Putin, Russia’s relationships with NATO and the U.S. have passed through several stages. When he first became president, relations were cautious, but after the 9/11 attacks Putin quickly supported the U.S. in the War on Terror and the opportunity for partnership appeared. With the election of Trump, Putin’s favorability in the U.S. increased. A Gallup poll in February 2017 revealed a positive view of Putin among 22% of Americans, the highest since 2003. Also Russia is an integral part of BRICS and BRICS development bank.

Benjamin Netanyahu

Benjamin Netanyahu popularly known as Bibi in Hebrew is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since 2009, previously holding the position from 1996 to 1999. Netanyahu is also currently a member of the Knesset and the Chairman of the Likud party. He is the first Israeli Prime Minister born in Israel after the establishment of the state. Netanyahu joined the Israel Defense Forces shortly after the Six-Day War in 1967, and became a team leader in the Sayeret Matkal special forces unit. Netanyahu took part in many missions, including Operation Inferno(1968), Operation Gift (1968) and Operation Isotope (1972), during which he was shot in the shoulder. Netanyahu fought on the front lines in the War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War in 1973, taking part in special forces raids along the Suez Canal, and then leading a commando assault deep into Syrian territory. Netanyahu achieved the rank of captain before being discharged. After graduating from MIT with Bachelor of Science (SB) and Master of Science (SM) degrees, Netanyahu was recruited as an economic consultant for the Boston Consulting Group. Netanyahu returned to Israel in 1978 to found the Yonatan Netanyahu Anti-Terror Institute, named after his brother Yonatan Netanyahu, who died leading Operation Entebbe. Netanyahu served as the Israeli ambassador to the United Nations from 1984 to 1988. Netanyahu is currently the second longest-serving Prime Minister in Israel’s history after David Ben-Gurion. Since December 2016 Netanyahu had been under investigation by police and prosecutors for a number of alleged corruption scandals, culminating in the Israeli attorney general announcing his intent to file indictments in 2019. Netanyahu has said his own “hard line against all terrorists” came as a result of his brother’s death. Yoni Netanyahu had been killed while leading the hostage-rescue mission at Operation Entebbe. In particular, Ronald Reagan was an admirer of Netanyahu’s work on counter-terrorism, and Reagan recommended Netanyahu’s book Terrorism: How the West Can Win to all senior figures in his administration. Netanyahu opposed the Oslo Accords from their inception. In 1993, he dedicated a chapter, entitled “Trojan Horse”, of his book A Place Among the Nations to argue against the Oslo Peace Process. He asserted that Amin al-Husseini had been one of the masterminds of the Holocaust, and that Yasser Arafat was heir to the former’s “alleged exterminationist Nazism”. Netanyahu has close ties with the congressional leadership of the U.S. Republican Party and with its 2012 presidential candidate, Mitt Romney. He and Romney first became acquainted when both worked at the Boston Consulting Group in the mid-1970s.

Xi Jinping

Xi Jinping is a Chinese politician serving as general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC). Often described as China’s “paramount leader” since 2012, he officially received the title of “core leader” from the CPC in 2016. As general secretary, Xi holds an ex-officio seat on the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, China’s top decision-making body. Xi is the first general secretary born after the Second World War and the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. The son of Chinese Communist veteran Xi Zhongxun, he was exiled to rural Yanchuan County as a teenager following his father’s purge during the Cultural Revolution, and lived in a cave in the village of Liangjiahe, where he organised communal labourers.[9] After studying at the Tsinghua University as a “Worker-Peasant-Soldier student”, Xi has significantly centralised institutional power by taking on a wide range of leadership positions, including chairing the newly formed National Security Commission, as well as new steering committees on economic and social reforms, military restructuring and modernization, and the Internet. Said to be one of the most powerful leaders in modern Chinese history, Xi’s political thoughts have been written into the party and state constitutions, and under his leadership the latter was amended to abolish term limits for the presidency. In February 2009, in his capacity as vice-president, Xi Jinping embarked on a tour of Latin America, visiting Mexico, Jamaica, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil to promote Chinese ties in the region and boost the country’s reputation in the wake of the global financial crisis. He also visited Valletta, Malta, before returning to China. On 11 February, while visiting Mexico, Xi spoke in front of a group of overseas Chinese and explained China’s contributions to the financial crisis, saying that it was “the greatest contribution towards the whole of human race, made by China, to prevent its 1.3 billion people from hunger”. Xi made his first foreign trip as president to Russia on 22 March 2013, about a week after he assumed the office. He met with President Vladimir Putin and the two leaders discussed trade and energy issues. He then went on to Tanzania, South Africa (where he attended the BRICS summit in Durban), and the Republic of the Congo. Xi visited the United States at Sunny lands Estate in California in a ‘shirtsleeves summit’ with U.S. President Barack Obama in June 2013, although this was not considered a formal state visit. In October 2013 Xi attended the APEC Summit in Bali, Indonesia. Xi went on an official state visit to India and met with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi in September 2014; he visited New Delhi and also went to Modi’s hometown in the state of Gujarat. Xi and Communist Party ideologues coined the phrase “Chinese Dream” to describe his overarching plans for China as its leader. Xi first used the phrase during a high-profile visit to the National Museum of China on 29 November 2012, where he and his Standing Committee colleagues were attending a “national revival” exhibition. Since then, the phrase has become the signature political slogan of the Xi era. The origin of the term “Chinese Dream” is unclear. While the Chinese Dream was originally interpreted as an extension of the American Dream, which emphasizes individual self-improvement and opportunity, the slogan’s use in official settings since 2013 has taken on a noticeably more nationalistic character, with official pronouncements of the “Dream” being consistently linked with the phrase “great revival of the Chinese nation”. Xi has reportedly taken a hard-line on security issues as well as foreign affairs, projecting a more nationalistic and assertive China on the world stage. His political program calls for a China more united and confident of its own value system and political structure. Under Xi China has also taken a more critical stance on North Korea, while improving relationships with South Korea. China–Japan relations have soured under Xi’s administration; the most thorny issue between the two countries remains the dispute over the Senkaku islands, which China calls Diaoyu. In response to Japan’s continued robust stance on the issue, China declared an Air Defense Identification Zone in November 2013. Xi has called China–United States relations in the contemporary world a “new type of great-power relations”, a phrase the Obama administration had been reluctant to embrace. Under his administration the Strategic and Economic Dialogue that began under Hu Jintao has continued. On China–U.S. relations, Xi said, “If [China and the United States] are in confrontation, it would surely spell disaster for both countries”. The U.S. has been critical of Chinese actions in the South China Sea. Xi has cultivated stronger relations with Russia, particularly in the wake of the Ukraine crisis of 2014. He seems to have developed a strong personal relationship with President Vladimir Putin. Both are viewed as strong leaders with a nationalist orientation who are not afraid to assert themselves against Western interests. He has signaled a greater interest in Central Asia as evidenced by China’s One Belt One Road initiative. Addressing a regional conference in Shanghai on 21 May 2014, he called on Asian countries to unite and forge a way together, rather than get involved with third party powers, seen as a reference to the United States. “Matters in Asia ultimately must be taken care of by Asians. Asia’s problems ultimately must be resolved by Asians and Asia’s security ultimately must be protected by Asians”, he told the conference.

Donald Trump

Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality. Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens and received an economics degree from the Wharton School. He took charge of his family’s real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, and expanded it from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. He became the oldest and wealthiest person ever to assume the presidency, and the first without prior military or government service. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Trump has made many false or misleading statements during his campaign and presidency. n 1982, Trump was listed on the initial Forbes List of wealthy individuals as having a share of his family’s estimated $200 million net worth. His financial losses in the 1980s caused him to be dropped from the list between 1990 and 1995, and reportedly obliged him to borrow from his siblings’ trusts in 1993. Trump’s tax returns from 1985 to 1994 show net losses totaling $1.17 billion over the ten-year period, in contrast to his claims about his financial health and business abilities. In 1995 his reported losses were $915.7 million. In 1978, Trump launched his Manhattan real estate business by purchasing a 50 percent stake in the derelict Commodore Hotel, located next to Grand Central Terminal. The purchase was funded largely by a $70 million construction loan that was guaranteed jointly by Fred Trump and the Hyatt hotel chain. A general contractor unconnected to Trump started a repair job on the Wollman Rink in Central Park in 1980. The project had an expected ​2 12-year construction schedule but was not completed by 1986. Trump took over the project and completed the work in three months for $1.95 million, which was $775,000 less than the initial budget. He then operated the rink for one year with some profits going to charity in exchange for the rink’s concession rights. On November 8, 2016, Trump received 306 pledged electoral votes versus 232 for Clinton. The official counts were 304 and 227 respectively, after defections on both sides. Trump received a smaller share of the popular vote than Clinton, which made him the fifth person to be elected president while losing the popular vote. Trump’s victory was considered a stunning political upset by most observers, as polls had consistently showed Hillary Clinton with a nationwide—though diminishing—lead, as well as a favorable advantage in most of the competitive states. The economic expansion that began in June 2009 continued through Trump’s first two years in office, although it did not accelerate as Trump had promised during his campaign. Trump had asserted that a policy of tax cuts and deregulation would result in 3% annualized GDP growth, and perhaps much higher, but it reached a high of 2.9% in his second year, while the average growth rates of job creation and inflation-adjusted weekly earnings were considerably lower than during the preceding four years. Economists were nevertheless impressed with the continued strength of the economy nearly ten years into its expansion, as the unemployment rate continued declining, to below 4%, amid only modest inflation. Trump’s proposed immigration policies were a topic of bitter and contentious debate during the campaign. He promised to build a more substantial wall on the Mexico–United States border to keep out illegal immigrants and vowed that Mexico would pay for it. He pledged to massively deport illegal immigrants residing in the United States, and criticized birthright citizenship for creating “anchor babies”. Following the November 2015 Paris attacks, Trump made a controversial proposal to ban Muslim foreigners from entering the United States until stronger vetting systems could be implemented. He later reframed the proposed ban to apply to countries with a “proven history of terrorism”. In order to confront the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), in 2015 Trump called for seizing the oil in ISIS-occupied areas, using U.S. air power and ground troops. In 2016, Trump advocated sending 20,000 to 30,000 U.S. troops to the region, a position he later retracted. In April 2017, Trump ordered a missile strike against a Syrian airfield in retaliation for the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack. In April 2018, he announced missile strikes against Assad’s regime, following a suspected chemical attack near Damascus. In December 2018, Trump declared “we have won against ISIS,” and ordered the withdrawal of all troops from Syria, contradicting Department of Defense assessments. Trump actively supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthis and signed a $110 billion agreement to sell arms to Saudi Arabia. On June 12, 2018, after several rounds of preliminary staff-level meetings, Trump and Kim held a first nuclear summit. In a joint declaration, both countries vowed to “join their efforts to build a lasting and stable peace regime on the Korean Peninsula”, while North Korea repeated its April 2018 promise to “work towards the complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. Six months later, North Korea said they would not cease their nuclear weapons program until the U.S. removes its nuclear threat from the Korean peninsula and “all neighboring areas”. Trump and Putin met in a 2018 Russia–United States summit in Helsinki on July 16, 2018. Trump drew harsh bipartisan criticism in the United States for appearing to side with Putin’s denial of Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, rather than accepting the findings of the United States intelligence community.

Narendra Modi

Narendra Damodardas Modi is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014. He was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014, and is the Member of Parliament for Varanasi. Modi is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh(RSS), a Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation. He is the first prime minister outside of the Indian National Congress to win two consecutive terms with a full majority, and the second one to complete five years in office after Atal Bihari Vajpayee. In 1971 he became a full-time worker for the RSS. During the state of emergency imposed across the country in 1975, Modi was forced to go into hiding. The RSS assigned him to the BJP in 1985, and he held several positions within the party hierarchy until 2001, rising to the rank of General Secretary. Modi was appointed Chief Minister of Gujarat in 2001, due to Keshubhai Patel’s failing health and poor public image following the earthquake in Bhuj. Modi was elected to the legislative assembly soon after. Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which gave the party a majority in the Indian lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, the first time for any single party since 1984. Modi’s administration has tried to raise foreign direct investment in the Indian economy, and reduced spending on healthcare and social welfare programmes. Modi has attempted to improve efficiency in the bureaucracy; he has centralised power by abolishing the Planning Commission. He began a high-profile sanitation campaign, and weakened or abolished environmental and labour laws. He initiated a controversial demonetization of high-denomination banknotes. During Modi’s second term the rhetoric of the government shifted from Hindutva to Gujarat’s economic development. As Chief Minister, Modi favored privatization and small government, which was at odds with the philosophy of the RSS, usually described as anti-privatization and anti-globalization. His policies during his second term have been credited with reducing corruption in the state. He established financial and technology parks in Gujarat and during the 2007 Vibrant Gujarat summit, real-estate investment deals worth $6.6 trillion were signed. The governments led by Patel and Modi supported NGOs and communities in the creation of groundwater-conservation projects. By December 2008, 500,000 structures had been built, of which 113,738 were check dams, which helped recharge the aquifers beneath them. The Modi government finished the process of bringing electricity to every village in Gujarat that its predecessor had almost completed.  Modi significantly changed the state’s system of power distribution, greatly impacting farmers. Gujarat expanded the Jyotigram Yojana scheme, in which agricultural electricity was separated from other rural electricity; the agricultural electricity was rationed to fit scheduled irrigation demands, reducing its cost. Although early protests by farmers ended when those who benefited found that their electricity supply had stabilized. Modi was sworn in as the Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014. He became the first Prime Minister born after India’s independence from the British Empire. The Modi government launched investigations by the Intelligence Bureau against numerous civil society organizations and foreign non-governmental organizations in the first year of the administration. The investigations,on the grounds that these organizations were slowing economic growth, was criticized as a witch-hunt. International humanitarian aid organization Medecins Sans Frontieres was among the groups that were put under pressure. The funds dedicated to poverty reduction programmes and social welfare measures were greatly decreased by the Modi administration. The money spent on social programmes declined from 14.6% of GDP during the Congress government to 12.6% during Modi’s first year in office. Spending on health and family welfare declined by 15%, and on primary and secondary education by 16%. Foreign policy played a relatively small role in Modi’s election campaign, and did not feature prominently in the BJP’s election manifesto. Modi invited all the other leaders of SAARC countries to his swearing in ceremony as prime minister. The Modi administration tried to attract foreign investment in the Indian economy from several sources, especially in East Asia, with the use of slogans such as “Make in India” and “Digital India”. The government also tried to improve relations with Islamic nations in the Middle East, such as Bahrain, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, as well as with Israel. During the first few months after the election, Modi made trips to a number of different countries to further the goals of his policy, and attended the BRICS, ASEAN, and G20 summits. Modi promised to be “tough on Pakistan” during his election campaign, and repeatedly stated that Pakistan was an exporter of terrorism. On 29 September 2016, the Indian Army stated that it had conducted a surgical strike on terror launch pads in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. The Indian media claimed that up to 50 terrorists and Pakistani soldiers had been killed in the strike. Modi also relaxed or abolished a number of other environmental regulations, particularly those related to industrial activity. A government committee stated that the existing system only served to create corruption, and that the government should instead rely on the owners of industries to voluntarily inform the government about the pollution they were creating. The recently concluded 2019 elections has seen Modi returning to power with a resounding majority and becoming one of the 3 prime ministers who have returned to power with such an individual majority

So to sum it up these are the individuals who have created a storm in the world politics and have made their presence felt with their policies and decisions which in turn affects the world order at large. These leaders could be mentioned as the movers and shakers of the world politics and the world order at large. They dominate the policies and decision making around the world and the other counties take notice of it.

Hence they are truly the “Tzars of the World”

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Story Conceived & written by

Sumit Peer, Founder Insourcing Multiplier

@sumitp191

 

7 Comments

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  4. A very talented sketch of five world leaders history, econonomic political and their administrative efficiency strategical policies and effort gives vide knoledge to every reader. The article gives to develop to the readers as where this leaders and how they born and brouhgt up how they transformed to the current stage.

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